William J. Higgins
You will investigate the structure -
function relationships in striated muscle using the Skeletal Muscle
Interactive Physiology Module co-produced by Benjamin/Cummings
Publishing Co. and A.D.A.M. Software. You will utilize this program
to gain an understanding of the:
• cellular and subcellular structure of striated muscle;
• molecular components of this tissue;
• mechanism and regulation of contraction;
• control of tension developed by a muscle cell and by a
collection of cells, i.e., a whole muscle.
Chapter 11 in your textbook, contains excellent coverage of this same material.
TOPIC 1. ANATOMY REVIEW: SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUE:
• List the components of:
- thick filaments:
- thin filaments:
- A band:
- I band:
- H zone:
- M line:
• Define and list the functions of:
- sarcoplasmic reticulum:
- transverse or t tubule:
- muscle fiber:
TOPIC 2. THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION
• Based on previous lectures,
- Describe the basis for the resting membrane potential (Vm):
- Draw an action potential as it would appear in an intracellular
recording made from a striated muscle cell. Describe the ionic
events responsible for the epsp and the rising and falling phases
of the AP:
- What is the role of the voltage-gated calcium channels located
in the plasma membrane of the presynaptic terminal?
- Describe the relationships among the frequency of motor neuron
action potentials, the amount of ACh released, and the strength of
the resulting muscle cell contraction.
- What happens to an individual poisoned by an anti-cholinesterase?
by a nicotinic antagonist? by a nicotinic agonist?
TOPIC 3. THE SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY
• Describe the proteins that comprise the
thin and thick filaments. Include the
prominent structural features (e.g., important 2o, 3o, and 4o structures, molecular
shape, binding sites, etc.) and functional properties.
• What is a cross bridge? What determines
how many of them are formed in a
muscle cell? What is the relationship between the number of cross bridges formed
and the amount of tension developed?
• Characterize/describe the calcium 'pumps'
contained in the SR.
• How does myosin actually use the energy
contained in the terminal phosphate
bond of ATP?
• Explain the relationship between cytosolic
calcium concentration and muscle tension.
What determines the cytosolic calcium concentration?
TOPIC 4. MUSCLE METABOLISM
• This section is not required. Look
at it only if you have time and you wish to review
TOPIC 5. CONTRACTION OF MOTOR UNITS
- Motor unit:
- Muscle tone:
• Describe the size of the motor unit (i.e.,
the relative number of muscle cells
innervated by a motor nerve) in your index finger and in the postural muscles
of your back. Explain your reasoning.
TOPIC 6. CONTRACTION OF WHOLE MUSCLE
• Define isotonic and isometric contractions:
• What are the three factors that determine the tension developed by a whole muscle?
• What is the molecular basis for the latent
period. If the muscle is required to lift
successively heavier weights, will the latent period increase or decrease in duration?
• Explain temporal summation. Why is
the second twitch stronger than the first?
• Draw a typical length - tension curve for
a striated muscle. Explain the active,
passive, and total tensions at muscle lengths less than, equal to, and greater
than Lo (resting length).
• Consider the length - tension curves for
a smooth (non-striated) muscle. Draw
and label it on the axes on the previous page and explain the differences from
those obtained with striated muscles:
• FINAL QUESTION #1: Lift a pen from the top of your desk.
Now lift the desk. Describe processes that regulated the tension
and permitted you to perform both of those tasks.
• FINAL QUESTION #2:
Smooth muscle is constructed to perform certain
tasks. This means it has certain functional characteristics.
Striated muscle has different structural features and different characteristics
that make it suited for fulfilling its functional role. Consider
the structure - function relationships of both striated and smooth muscles.
You should be able to compare/contrast the latent periods, the velocity
of muscle isotonic contraction, maximum active tensions developed, and
range of effective muscle cell lengths and explain the physical/molecular
structural bases for these differences.